Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an extraordinary discovery in the area of science and technology. Engineering them properly holds the promise of opening new avenues for future development of many other materials for diverse applications. Carbon nanotubes have open structure and enriched chirality, which enable improvements the properties and performances of other materials when CNTs are incorporated in them. Energy storage systems have been using carbon nanotubes either as an additive to improve electronic conductivity of cathode materials or as an active anode component depending upon structural and morphological specifications. Furthermore, they have also been used directly as the electrode material in supercapacitors and fuel cells. Therefore, CNTs demand a huge importance due to their underlying properties and prospective applications in the energy storage research fields. There are different kinds of carbon nanotubes which have been successfully used in batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells and other energy storage systems. This chapter focuses on the role of CNTs in the different energy storage and conversion systems and impact of their structure and morphology on the electrochemical performances and storage mechanisms.
Part of the book: Carbon Nanotubes
Solid-state battery (SSB) is the new avenue for achieving safe and high energy density energy storage in both conventional but also niche applications. Such batteries employ a solid electrolyte unlike the modern-day liquid electrolyte-based lithium-ion batteries and thus facilitate the use of high-capacity lithium metal anodes thereby achieving high energy densities. Despite this promise, practical realization and commercial adoption of solid-state batteries remain a challenge due to the underlying material and cell level issues that needs to be overcome. This chapter thus covers the specific challenges, design principles and performance improvement strategies pertaining to the cathode, solid electrolyte and anode used in solid state batteries. Perspectives and outlook on specific applications that can benefit from the successful implementation of solid-state battery systems are also discussed. Overall, this chapter highlights the potential of solid-state batteries for successful commercial deployment in next generation energy storage systems.
Part of the book: Management and Applications of Energy Storage Devices
Today, the burgeoning drive towards global urbanization with over half the earth’s population living in cities, has created major challenges with regards to intracity and intercity transit and mobility. This problem is compounded due to the fact that almost always urbanization and increase in standard of living drives individual automobile ownerships. Over 95% of automobiles are presently powered by some form of fossil fuel and as an unintended consequence, urban centers have also been centers for peak greenhouse gas emissions, a major contributor to global climate change. A revolutionary solution to this conundrum is flight capable electric automobiles or electric aerial vehicles that can tackle both urban mobility and climate change challenges. For such advanced electric platforms, energy storage and delivery component is the vital component towards achieving takeoff, flight, cruise, and landing. The requirements and duty cycle demands on the energy storage system is drastically different when compared to the performance metrics required for terrestrial electric vehicles. As the widely deployed lithium ion-based battery systems are often the primary go-to energy storage choice in electric vehicle related applications, it is imperative that performance metrics and specifications for such batteries towards areal electric vehicles need to be established. In this nascent field, there exists ample opportunities for battery material innovations, understanding degradation mechanism, battery design, development and deployment of battery control and management systems. Thus, this chapter comprehensively discusses battery requirements and identifies battery material chemistries suitable for handling aerial electric automobile duty cycles. The chapter also discusses the battery cell-level metrics pertaining to electrochemical, chemical, mechanical, and structural parameters. Furthermore, specific models for battery degradation, state of health (SOH), capacity and models for full cell performance and degradation are also discussed here. Finally, the chapter also discusses battery safety and future directions of batteries that would power these next generation urban electric aircrafts.
Part of the book: Lithium-Ion Batteries - Recent Advanced and Emerging Topics [Working title]