Sustainable production refers to the production that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. At global level and mainly across Nigeria, rice fields are considered as one of the most important sources of atmospheric concentration of two greenhouse gases, mainly anthropogenic methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. These greenhouse gases (GHGs) are produced under anaerobic conditions, and their production has negative environmental and health implications. Additionally, the growing demand for rice across Nigeria exceeds supply, resulting in a rice deficit. To overcome this challenge, rice production should be increased, with so much regard to less GHG emission. Moving forward, understanding the determinate of farmers’ mitigation strategies to GHGs will definitely enhance effort made for farmers to continue to mitigate easily over-time. Incidentally, empirical study on the present discourse is relatively scanty, isolated, and devoid of in-depth and quantitative analyses. Most empirical studies did not pay close attention to the determinants of rice farmers’ decisions to mitigation options to GHGs. Studies on mitigation of GHGs at a farm or household level should rigorously examine the socioeconomic characteristics that influence farmers’ decisions to practice GHG mitigation or not. These create a gap in research and make it extremely difficult if not impossible for the governments/interest groups to know the method they can adopt in helping farmers mitigate the negative impact of GHG emission in rice production. It was against this backdrop that this study was systematically undertaken.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology
Across Nigeria, while rice farmers are still battling the negative impact of climate change, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought a new risk that threatens not only farmers’ livelihoods but also the most important global food security crop “rice”. Every farming season, rice farmers face risks such as low rainfall, price volatility, and poor government policies. But the present risks from the COVID-19 pandemic are putting new challenges in front of rice value-chain that is already under serious threat. As a matter of urgency, farmers must respond to this new threat by choosing measures that increase their yield. Incidentally, empirical studies that documented the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on rice yield cannot be found as at the time of this study. These create emptiness in research. With this present threat, Nigeria is likely to experience a reversal in the development gains already achieved and will be unlikely to achieve the Agenda 2030 Goals.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Rice Research
At global level, the use of inorganic feeds, veterinary drugs amongst others can significantly increase farm output in various livestock production systems. However, in recent times, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe and chemical-residue free healthy livestock foods which organic production methods are said to ensure. Livestock Organic farming can offer promising opportunities for ensuring safe food, environmental sustainability, high livestock yield and income. Incidentally, empirical evidence on present discourse is still relatively very little. Although, a significant contribution has been made by various scholars, regrettably, these studies did not dwell on organic livestock practices and their knowledge level in South-east, Nigeria. Therefore, this presents a dearth in research and became increasingly pertinent that the study was systematically undertaken. A multistage and purposive random sampling procedure was used in the selection of 504 respondents who are organic livestock farmers. Data collected was analyzed using mean score analysis. Result shows that farmers had knowledge on practices of extensive system of livestock/poultry farming (X̄ =3.49); provision of natural air (X̄ =3.50); provision of natural water sprinkling during hot weather (X̄ =3.50); rearing animal without antibiotics (X̄ =3.56); and treating injured animals organically (X̄ =3.48) among others. Incidentally, majority of the livestock farmers lacked knowledge of how to induce ovulation for animals without drugs (X̄ =1.88). The inducement of ovulation for farm animals is one of the livestock organic methods used in forcing farm animals to come on heat/ovulation for quick multiplication. This method is harmful both for the animal an eventual consumer. Therefore, it is necessary that extension agents who are subject matter specialist (SMS) in livestock organic farming educate farmers on how to induce ovulation to farm animals organically with support from the government and farmers cooperative membership resources as these would significantly reduce harmful drugs injected to animal for quick ovulation and preserve the life span of the animal and consumers of the animal.
Part of the book: Agricultural Economics