In biochemistry, oxidoreductase is a large group of enzymes that are involved in redox reaction in living organisms and in the laboratory. Oxidoreductase enzymes catalyze reaction involving oxygen insertion, hydride transfer, proton extraction, and other essential steps. There are a number of metabolic pathways like glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, drug transformation and detoxification in liver, photosynthesis in chloroplast of plants, etc. that require the direct involvements of oxidoreductase enzymes. In addition, degradation of old and unnecessary endogenous biomolecules is catalyzed by a family of oxidoreductase enzymes, e.g., xanthine oxidoreductase. Oxidoreductase enzymes use NAD, FAD, or NADP as a cofactor and their efficiency, specificity, good biodegradability, and being studied well make it fit well for industrial applications. In the near future, oxidoreductase may be utilized as the best biocatalyst in pharmaceutical, food processing, and other industries. Oxidoreductase play a significant role in the field of disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. By analyzing the activities of enzymes and changes of certain substances in the body fluids, the number of disease conditions can be diagnosed. Disorders resulting from deficiency (quantitative and qualitative) and excess of oxidoreductase, which may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities and decreased normal performance of life, are becoming common.
Part of the book: Oxidoreductase