In biochemistry, oxidoreductase is a large group of enzymes that are involved in redox reaction in living organisms and in the laboratory. Oxidoreductase enzymes catalyze reaction involving oxygen insertion, hydride transfer, proton extraction, and other essential steps. There are a number of metabolic pathways like glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, drug transformation and detoxification in liver, photosynthesis in chloroplast of plants, etc. that require the direct involvements of oxidoreductase enzymes. In addition, degradation of old and unnecessary endogenous biomolecules is catalyzed by a family of oxidoreductase enzymes, e.g., xanthine oxidoreductase. Oxidoreductase enzymes use NAD, FAD, or NADP as a cofactor and their efficiency, specificity, good biodegradability, and being studied well make it fit well for industrial applications. In the near future, oxidoreductase may be utilized as the best biocatalyst in pharmaceutical, food processing, and other industries. Oxidoreductase play a significant role in the field of disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. By analyzing the activities of enzymes and changes of certain substances in the body fluids, the number of disease conditions can be diagnosed. Disorders resulting from deficiency (quantitative and qualitative) and excess of oxidoreductase, which may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities and decreased normal performance of life, are becoming common.
Part of the book: Oxidoreductase
Dyslipidemia is one of the most common risk factors for the most prevalent and fatal non-communicable diseases (NCDs); cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes and other. According to world health organization (WHO) report effective management of dyslipidemia can reduce incidence and mortality rate by NCDs up to 30%. Dyslipidemia negatively affects every vital organ; liver, kidney, heart, brain, lung and others in number of ways. In short dyslipidemia is defined as disorder of lipoprotein metabolism and it could be either hypolipoproteinemia or hyperlipoproteinemia. Endocrine disorder, poor feeding habit, physical inactivity and other factors are responsible for existence of dyslipidemia. Lipocrinology which studies about interrelationship between lipid metabolism and endocrine function in normal and abnormal condition is getting essential. Currently number of studies explain that dyslipidemia induce endocrine dysfunction and the reverse is also possible. In addition, biochemical assessment of dyslipidemia is used to monitor clinical course and progress of endocrinological diseases. Similarly, biochemical analysis of hormones helps to assess the outcome of antidyslipidemic drugs and prognoses the condition dyslipidemia. Most commonly dyslipidemia coexist with type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Abnormal distribution and accumulation fat in the body leads to deranged different hormones and factors secretion like adipokine, thereby contributing to chronic inflammation and lipotoxicity. Therefore, detailed and up-to-date review about lipid metabolism disorder and endocrine function are so essential in medicine and health science to have good service to community.
Part of the book: Management of Dyslipidemia