Chronic pain in palliative care is viewed as an illness but remains as a subjective symptom. Hence, we must consider genetics, pain experience, coping skills, epigenetic effects, mental health, social determinants of health, interventions, and molecular biology. Acute pain transitions to chronic pain in some individuals following an injury, and there is poor evidence to stop such change. Acute, Chronic, and mixed pain can occur in patients with trauma, cancer, organ failure due to primary illness and other co-morbidities. The response to interventions may include biopsychosocial, non-pharmacological, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, interventional radiology, pharmacological and depending upon survivorship, consider what is appropriate with peer reviewed medical evidence. Neurobiology is important in relation to physical and psychological issues; it affects an expression of pain. Manageable pain and relief are considered as being Human Right. Lack of adequate knowledge and treatment resources are common for care providers and patients. Cancer and noncancer pain ought to consider collaborating with interdisciplinary palliative approach, palliative care, and end of life care along with acute, chronic, and mixed pain management. Cancer patients with survivorship is increasing and risk management with chemicals, noncancer individuals appear similar. Barriers include health professional education, lack of treatment resources, medical, economic, ethical, and legal reasons. Pain management as an illness, care providers considers patient and family centered approach, useful to the community.
Part of the book: Pain Management