E. coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans and is a leading cause of enteric infections and systemic infections. The systemic infections include bacteremia, nosocomial pneumonia, cholecystitis, cholangitis, peritonitis, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and infectious arthritis. E. coli is also the leading cause of neonatal meningitis.
Part of the book: E. Coli Infections
The aorta is the largest artery in the body and can have aneurysms, which are focal expansions of the vessel wall that can occur anywhere throughout the artery. These can be classified as thoracic, abdominal or thoracoabdominal aneurysms and can be caused by several etiologies, including degenerative, infectious, and genetic causes. Most aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic and are detected incidentally while looking for other primary diseases with a physical exam finding of a pulsatile mass, or with imaging such as ultrasound, computed tomography, x-rays, or magnetic resonance imaging. When symptoms are present, they are often nonspecific and occur due to inflammation, rapid expansion, compression/erosion of the aneurysm into surrounding structures, or rupture. Uncontrolled aortic aneurysms can lead to fatal outcomes, thus making proper management essential. Management can range from medical treatment to surgical repair based on location, size, rate of expansion, and presence of symptoms.
Part of the book: Aortic Aneurysm
Heart and lung transplantations are established treatments for patients with end-stage heart and lung failure, respectively. As mechanical circulatory devices, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, organ perfusion, and transport systems advance, so do patient comorbidities and profiles of patients undergoing transplantation are becoming more complex. With the ever-increasing shortage of donor organs, marginal and high-risk donor utilization continues to rise. In this chapter, we attempt to elucidate the recent advances and outcomes in heart and lung transplantation. We also highlight how an ongoing COVID-19 pandemic affects the logistics of transplant programs.
Part of the book: Current Challenges and Advances in Organ Donation and Transplantation