Increasing ambient temperature is a major climatic factor that negatively affects plant growth and development, and causes significant losses in soybean crop yield worldwide. Thus, high temperatures (HT) result in less seed germination, which leads to pathogenic infection, and decreases the economic yield of soybean. In addition, the efficiency of photosynthesis and transpiration of plants are affected by high temperatures, which have negative impact on the physio-biochemical process in the plant system, finally deteriorate the yield and quality of the affected crop. However, plants have several mechanisms of specific cellular detection of HT stress that help in the transduction of signals, producing the activation of transcription factors and genes to counteract the harmful effects caused by the stressful condition. Among the contributors to help the plant in re-establishing cellular homeostasis are the applications of organic stimulants (antioxidants, osmoprotectants, and hormones), which enhance the productivity and quality of soybean against HT stress. In this chapter, we summarized the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of soybean plants at various growth stages under HT. Furthermore, it also depicts the mitigation strategies to overcome the adverse effects of HT on soybean using exogenous applications of bioregulators. These studies intend to increase the understanding of exogenous biochemical compounds that could reduce the adverse effects of HT on the growth, yield, and quality of soybean.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology
The rapidly increasing human population is an alarming issue and would need more food production under changing climate. Abiotic stresses like heat stress and temperature fluctuation are becoming key issues to be addressed for boosting crop production. Maize growth and productivity are sensitive to temperature fluctuations. Grain yield losses in maize from heat stress are expected to increase owing to higher temperatures during the growing season. This situation demands the development of maize hybrids tolerant to heat and drought stresses without compromising grain yield under stress conditions. The chapter aimed to assess the updates on the influence of high-temperature stress (HTS) on the physio-biochemical processes in plants and to draw an association between yield components and heat stress on maize. Moreover, exogenous applications of protectants, antioxidants, and signaling molecules induce HTS tolerance in maize plants and could help the plants cope with HTS by scavenging reactive oxygen species, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, and protection of cellular membranes by the accrual of compatible osmolytes. It is expected that a better thought of the physiological basis of HTS tolerance in maize plants will help to develop HTS maize cultivars. Developing HTS-tolerant maize varieties may ensure crops production sustainability along with promoting food and feed security under changing climate.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology
The production of rice is least in Pakistan and quite low as compared with other countries. Proper crop management techniques such as intercropping and combining organic manures are useful for better productivity and eco-friendly environment. Whereas studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of intercrops and incorporation of certain nutrients with these plants. To examine results of intercropping experiment was carried out research by combining nutrient management practices. Five methods were taken including, sole rice, sole Green gram, rice + Green gram (drill), rice + green gram (Ridges), rice + green gram (bed) in the main plot moreover sub-plot included treatments of organic and inorganic supplement. The results show that sole rice followed by intercropping rice along green gram (poultry manure) has better characteristics of growth and yield, higher yield.by changing irrigation methods and farming methods, managing organic additives and fertilizer inputs, and choosing appropriate varieties and planting methods.CH4 decreased by 75% and N2O increased by 58%. The overall rice production of Rice + green gram(ridges) is 2285 kg ha−1 followed by rice + green gram(drill) (2060 kg ha−1). Rice + green gram(ridges) intercropping and (25 percent Urea+25 percent FYM+ 50 percent PM) were also correlated with better N usage performance and post-harvest soil usable N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) Benefit: cost (BC) ratios were also higher in the same treatment. From these results it is obvious that the integration of intercropping and induction of organic manures has a substantial impact on the outcome of rice.
Part of the book: Cereal Grains