Gyroscope is a type of angular velocity measuring device, which can precisely determine the orientation of moving objects. It was first employed in navigation and later became an inertial navigation instrument widely used in modern aviation, aerospace, and national defense industries. As a vital representative of gyroscope, the fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) has advantages in terms of compact structure, high precision, high sensitivity, and high environmental adaptability. FOG has been broadly utilized in many fields, and is also a key component of modern navigation instruments. In this paper, the history, classification, performance indicators, and application requirements of gyroscope are briefly summarized. The development history of FOG based on Sagnac effect is described in detail. The three generations of FOG are interferometric FOG, resonant FOG, and stimulated Brillouin scattering FOG. At the same time, this chapter summarizes the development and research situation of FOG in the United States, Japan, France, and other major developing countries, and compares the application of FOG in various international companies.
Part of the book: Gyroscopes