For successful industrial scale-up and effective cost analysis of transesterification process, presentation of complimentary research data from process optimization using statistical design techniques, chemical kinetics and thermodynamics are essential. Full factorial central composite design (FFCCD) was applied for the statistical optimization of base methanolysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) seed oil using response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with desirability function analysis on quadratic model. Reaction time had the most significant impact on the biodiesel yield. Optimum conditions for biodiesel yield of 93.09 wt% validated at 92.58 wt% were 50.03°C, 2.04 wt% catalyst concentration, 58.5 min and 4.66 methanol/oil molar ratio with overall desirability of 1.00. Ascertained fuel properties of the FAME were in compliance with international limits. GC–MS, FTIR and NMR characterizations confirmed unsaturation and good cold-flow qualities of the biodiesel. Based on power rate law, second-order kinetic model out-performed first-order kinetic model. Rate constants of the triglyceride (TG), diglycerides (DG) and monoglycerides (MG) hydrolysis were in the range of 0.00838–0.0409 wt%/min while activation energies were 12.76, 15.83 and 22.43 kcal/mol respectively. TG hydrolysis to DG was the rate determining step. The optimal conditions have minimal error and would serve as a springboard for industrial scale-up of biodiesel production from T. catappa seed oil.
Part of the book: Prunus