Vein Thrombosis Risk in Women and Travel
By Panagiotis Tsikouras, Xanthoula Anthoulaki, Theodora Deftereou, Anna Chalkidou, Anastasia Bothou, Fotini Gaitatzi, Eleftherios Chatzimichael, Selma Gyroglou, Arsou Chalil Bourazan, George Stanulov, Spyridon Michalopoulos, John Tsirkas, Irene Babageogaka, Werner Rath, Georg-Friedrich Von Tempelhoff, Stefanos Zervoudis, Georgios Iatrakis, Georgios Galazios and Nikolaos Nikolettos
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs is a serious condition that can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in about 15–24% of cases. If it is not diagnosed/treated timely, nearly 15% of these PE are lethal. The relationship between travel and staying in the same position for a long time is well-known since World War II. Generally, it is more frequent in air flights. It is also associated with the economic downturn in airplanes because passengers have limited space and have greater difficulty of moving. It is estimated that approximately 1–6% of long-haul passengers arrive at their destination with a clot in their veins, but most DVT are asymptomatic.
Part of the book: Tourism
Twin Pregnancies Labour Modus and Timing
By Panagiotis Tsikouras, Anna Chalkidou, Anastasia Bothou, Angeliki Gerede, Xanthoula Anthoulaki, Spyridon Michalopoulos, Ioannis Tsirkas, Fotini Gaitatzi, Irene Babageorgaka, Apostolos Lazarou, Natalia Sachnova, Michael Koutsogiannis, Konstantinos Nikolettos, Theopi Nalbanti, Eythimios Demosthenous, Georgios Dragoutsos, Ifigenia Apostolou, Alexios Alexiou, Panagiotis Petsidis, Stefanos Zervoudis, George Iatrakis, Werner Rath, George Galazios and Nikolaos Nikolettos
Twin pregnancies are categorized according to three factors, zygosity, chorionicity and amnionicity. Dizygotic twins are always dichorionic and diamniotic, where each twin has its own chorionic and amniotic sac. Monozygotic twins account for 1/3 of twin pregnancies and show higher morbidity and mortality. In monozygotic twins, chorionicity and amnionicity are determined by the time of zygote division. Chorionicity and amnionicity determine the risks of twin pregnancy. Morbitidies are shown notable decreasing tendency depending on improving of high risk obstetric and neonatal care, however is still discussed the optimum labour management in twin pregnancies Vaginal delivery in twin pregnancies is possible when both have cephalic presentation and in the late weeks of pregnancy during which the risks of prematurity are minimized. The aim of this review was the assessment and evaluation the impact of the labour modus and timing of termination of twin pregnancies due to rise of their occurrence based on scientific aspects of the new published literature on perinatal outcome.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Caesarean Section
Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Pregnancy-Diagnosis, Complications and Management: An Overview
By Panagiotis Tsikouras, Christina Tsiggalou, Anastasia Bothou, Aggeliki Gerede, Ifigenia Apostolou, Fotini Gaitatzi, Anna Chalkidou, Xanthoula Anthoulaki, Spyridon Michalopoulos, Georgios Dragoutsos, Ioannis Tsirkas, Irini Babageorgaka, Theopi Nalbanti, Natalia Sachnova, Alexios Alexiou, Konstantinos Nikolettos, Christos Tsalikidis, Stefanos Zervoudis, Panagiotis Peitsidis and Nikolaos Nikolettos
Antiphospholipid syndrome which is also known as APS is an autoimmune disease which represents an acquired form of thrombophilia. The etiology of APS remains unknown. This disorder occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks some of the normal human proteins and manifests itself as recurrent arterial or venous thrombosis and it could emerge after abortions or in recurrent pregnancy loss. In APS, the body produces the wrong antibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins, that is present in the blood and plays an important role in coagulation. Antibodies are specific proteins that usually target and neutralize the body’s invaders, such as viruses and bacteria. When antibodies attack phospholipid-binding proteins, blood clots abnormally. Specifically, it could cause blood clots in veins or arteries leading to stroke and various pregnancy complications such as: endometrial death, miscarriage, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity. APS is divided into primary and secondary, which is associated with autoimmune diseases and more often with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), while antibodies against cardiolipin are detected in many other conditions (infections, malignancies, drugs, etc.). The symptoms of APS, in addition to arterial and/or venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications, are multisystemic and the differential diagnosis of the primary APS from the secondary, in the context of SLE, is of particular clinical interest and is subject of this literature review.
Part of the book: Inflammation in the 21st Century