Ginseng, the root of Panax species is a well-known conventional and perennial herb belonging to Araliaceae of various countries China, Korea, and Japan that is also known as the king of all herbs and famous for many years worldwide. It is a short underground rhizome that is associated with the fleshy root. Pharmacognostic details of cultivation and collection with different morphological characters are discussed. Phytocontent present is saponins glycosides, carbohydrates, polyacetylenes, phytosterols, nitrogenous substances, amino acids, peptides, vitamins, volatile oil, minerals, and enzymes details are discussed. The main focusing of the bioactive constituent of ginseng is ginsenosides are triterpenoid saponin glycosides having multifunctional pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and many more will be discussed. Ginseng is helpful in the treatment of microbial infection, inflammation, oxidative stress, diabetes, and obesity. Nanoparticles and nanocomposite film technologies had developed in it as novel drug delivery for cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorder. Multifaceted ginseng will be crucial for future development. This chapter review pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostic studies of this plant.
Part of the book: Ginseng
Flavonoids are broad-spectrum secondary metabolites with cosmetics, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and medicinal applications. They play a crucial role in life span shortening complications, including diabetes, CVS disorder, and cancer. They are the secondary metabolites essential natural products due to their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-cholinesterase, disease combating, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antiallergic, and many more pharmacological activities causing substantial economic and social burdens. They have the ability to scavenge superoxide, hydroxyl, and lipid radicals. They are a group of polyphenolic compounds having 15 carbon skeleton consisting of two benzene rings with heterocyclic pyran ring, which are classified as anthocyanins, flavonols, isoflavonols, and flavanones, and present in vegetables, fruits, flowers, seeds, stems, and leaves.
Part of the book: Flavonoid Metabolism