This chapter deals with the effects of different pesticides used in agro-ecosystem on honey bees and other pollinators and probable measures to manage this escalating problem of global decline of managed as well as the wild insect pollinators. This chapter describes different routes from which pollinators, especially honey bees get exposed to the different toxicants, followed by poisoning symptoms in honey bees. Further, this chapter focuses on the classification of different toxicants in different classes as per their nature. Finally, the management of these different toxicants and their toxicity to avoid bee poisoning has been considered in the later portion of the chapter.
Part of the book: Modern Beekeeping
Invasive alien species (IAS) is an exotic species that becomes established in natural or seminatural ecosystems or habitats. It is an agent of change and threatens native biological diversity. Invasive insects in India have been a major threat to household commodities, human health, agricultural produce and environment. India is highly diversified in its weather and climate, which supports the establishment of various introduced insects from other parts of the world. Furthermore, globalisation has facilitated numerous introductions of invasive insect pests. There have been 23 invasive alien insects reported from India to date. This chapter exclusively deals with the characteristics of insects that make them invasive, the common pathways of entry of the invasive insects, the steps through which the introduced insect has established itself in the foreign land and finally the ways to manage them.
Part of the book: Invasive Species