Solid waste can be broadly classified as putrescible and non-putrescible based on its biodegradability. Municipal solid waste contains food waste, papers, plastic, paints, heavy metals and rubber. Industrial solid waste may contain waste adsorbent, waste catalyst sludge, solid residue of by-product, residue of reactions and hazardous materials also. Dewatering, centrifugal filtration, drying and incineration are usual steps used for solid waste treatment in industries. Biodegradable solid waste, being rich in organic content, can be used to synthesize various useful organic compounds. Vermicomposting is an effective method for converting organic waste into nutrient-rich fertilizer. Food and vegetable waste can be processed to obtain useful products. Inorganic domestic waste and electronic waste may contain valuable heavy metals like gold and platinum. E-waste and industrial waste containing hazardous waste need to be classified and treated carefully. Non-biodegradable waste like plastic and rubber can be reused or recycled. Non-government organizations in developing countries are playing key role in creating awareness among people about solid waste. Recycling in industries is promoted by government through various schemes and initiatives. This chapter briefly explains initiatives and investigations aimed at increasing adoptability and efficiency of various solid minimizations, reuse, recycle methods and technologies used for synthesis of value-added products.
Part of the book: Sustainability Concept In Developing Countries