Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a serious neurological disorder associated with a rapid progressive ascending muscle paralysis, and it is the most common neurological autoimmune disorder that affects the peripheral nervous system, which is usually triggered by viral or bacterial infection. GBS is rare in children and characterized by rapid progressive onset ascending muscle weakness associated with pain and sensory dysfunction. Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), a variant of GBS, is rare in pediatric population which is typically manifested by ataxic gait, ophthalmoplegia, and areflexia since it is rare in children. It is vitally important to early diagnose this condition and to initiate early treatment to prevent further complications and long-term morbidity. Since the outbreak of Zika virus, the incidence of GBS has been increased. Zika virus associated with autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibodies trigger which lead to GBS development. Zika virus infection should be strongly considered in patients who present with classical signs of Miller Fisher syndrome, especially travelers and residents from endemic areas.
Part of the book: Current Concepts in Zika Research
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive neurophysiological study that monitors electrical activity of the brain. EEG is an essential investigational tool to analyze and record electrical impulses of the brain and considered to be the gold standard electrophysiological test which can be used to help diagnose epilepsy. EEG can also be used to diagnose and evaluate other conditions such as sleep disorders, neurometabolic diseases with encephalopathy and neuropsychiatric disorders. It is also an essential ancillary test in other conditions such as brain death assessment. However, it is essential not to entirely rely on EEG for an absolute diagnosis of epilepsy as the main indication of EEG in general and in Pediatric age group in particular is to categorize different types of seizure and epilepsy syndromes for further evaluation and management.
Part of the book: Electroencephalography