A total of 100 broiler chickens were examined for the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility pattern for amikacin and cefotaxime was performed by Kirby-Bauer and microdilution assays. Then, checkerboard titration in trays was applied and FIC was measured to identify the type of interaction between the two antibiotics. The ability of isolates to form in vitro biofilm was detected by two methods, one qualitative (CRA) and the other quantitative (MTP), followed by investigating the effect of each antibiotic alone and in combination on the expression of biofilm genes. The overall isolation percentage of P. aeruginosa was 21%. Resistance to each antibiotic was more than 50%; the range of cefotaxime MIC was 8–512 μg/ml, while amikacin MIC range was 1–64 μg/ml. The FIC index established a synergistic association between tested two drugs in 17 (81%) of isolates and the remaining represent partially synergism. The qualitative technique showed that only 66.6% of the isolates were considered biofilm producers, while the quantitative technique showed that 90.4% of the isolates were biofilm producers. Further to RT-PCR investigation, significant repression against biofilm-forming genes (filC, pelA, and pslA) was observed for the combination of antibiotics when compared with monotherapy.
Part of the book: Gene Expression and Phenotypic Traits