A field experiment was conducted during the 2014–2017 period at Aleksandras Stulginskis University (now—Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy) on a Endocalcaric Endogleyic Luvisol (LV-can.gln) according to the WRB 2014. The three nonchemical weed control methods were explored: (1) thermal (using wet water steam), (2) mechanical (interrow loosening), and (3) self-regulation (smothering). In the thermal and mechanical weed control treatments, winter oilseed rape was grown with an interrow spacing of 48.0 cm and in weed smothering (self-regulation) treatment with an interrow spacing of 12.0 cm. Winter oilseed rape was grown in the soil with a regular humus layer (23–25 cm) and with a thickened humus layer (45–50 cm). Annual weeds predominated in the winter oilseed rape crop. In the soil with both humus layers, regular and thickened, the most efficient weed control method was mechanical weed management both during the autumn (efficacy 26.7–75.1%) and spring (efficacy 37.1–76.7%) growing seasons. Thermal and mechanical weed control in combination with the bio-preparations in droughty years significantly reduced the number of weed seedlings. Dry matter mass of weeds most markedly decreased through the application of the mechanical weed management method.
Part of the book: Organic Agriculture