Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. RTAs are multifactorial in origin, but neurocognitive function of drivers contributes about 25% of the variance of most accidents. This chapter reviews the commonest disorders that contribute to RTA. They are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adolescents and young adult drivers, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in older drivers. The features of these disorders and how they impair driving along with evidence-based treatments and interventions are discussed. Increasing awareness of these disorders, screening for them, and offering treatment when appropriate can contribute to reducing the disease burden related to RTA, which is currently the eighth leading cause of death across all ages globally. The lack of attention to these disorders within the road safety disciplines constitutes a significant public health problem which requires attention.
Part of the book: Accident Analysis and Prevention