In Asia, Southeast Asia is reported as a non-endemic area of the parasite. However, several indigenous echinococcoses in human and animals were reported in several countries, such as Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Most human infections are caused by Echinococcus granulosus and only two cases with E. ortleppi. There was no evidence case with E. multilocularis in Southeast Asia. Echinococcus granulosus infection is prevalent in areas that association with dogs and livestocks that close contact with dogs. The incidence is very low. A total of 49 cases of echinococcosis was identified in Southeast Asia from 1885 to 2015. Of which, at least 31 cases were indigenous, 14 cases were imported, and 4 cases were unknown. Thailand is the most prevalent country with echinococcosis in human, followed by very low incidence in Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Cambodia and Lao PDR. However, it is very difficult to estimate the real number of human echinococcosis case in Southeast Asia due to the long asymptomatic period that is usually >5 years. The disease may be more prevalent in Southeast Asia; however, they were underdiagnosed and not reported.
Part of the book: Overview on Echinococcosis