Although the potential for livestock production is high in Central Africa, it is not an important economic activity because of disease constraints, primarily trypanosomiasis transmitted by tsetse flies. Recently, a growing number of vector-borne diseases have also emerged in that region. Indeed, there is a progressive expansion of trypanosomiasis in known tsetse-free areas in the Far North of Cameroon, mechanically transmitted by Tabanidae. In the beginning of year 2019, there was an epidemic of African horse sickness (AHS) in Cameroon for the first time. In the meantime, AHS was also declared in Chad and reported in Nigeria. Besides, new cases of Rift Valley fever (RVF) are regularly detected in both Cameroon and Chad. The relative significance of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in livestock is difficult to quantify, because there is no study on their socioeconomic impact. But, certain VBDs have significant impact on food production, and others such as RVF can be transmitted to humans. Impact of VBDs on human health, animal health and trade, as well as the transboundary nature of these diseases means there is a need for regional coordination and cooperation to address challenges. This can be successfully achieved with One Health approach.
Part of the book: Vector-Borne Diseases