Cholera is endemic in Mozambique and, together with other diarrheic diseases, is a major cause of infant death. There are yearly outbreaks in the northern provinces. The last major review of cholera in the country was published in 2013, but there have been major events since then, such as the 2015 outbreak in central and northern Mozambique and others in the following years. Plenty of related information were shared during the XVI National Health Journeys, 17–20 September 2018, in Maputo City. This chapter aims to summarize and discuss the most relevant information on cholera from the journeys, and other recent publications, in order to update the information from the latest major review. Regarding etiology, new strains of V. cholerae irradiating from several areas have been replacing the original from the Indian subcontinent. Water and sanitation are major challenges but, in some instances, sociocultural features play a significant role in people’s reluctance to use untreated water, even when they have access to potable sources, and mistrust toward government interventions. Vaccination campaigns seemed effective but there is a need to promote more adherence and collaboration from people at risk, perhaps by involving more the local government and religious and traditional authorities.
Part of the book: Healthcare Access
Idai was a strong tropical cyclone in Central Mozambique, causing over 1000 deaths, destroying schools, hospitals, roads, and more than 239,731 houses, displacing thousands of people to 136 accommodation sites, and leaving people in need for assistance. The resulting precarious hygienic conditions caused outbreaks of diseases such as malaria and cholera. This communication summarizes the onset of cholera outbreak in Sofala province and its response. It was declared on 27 March, and the number of cases raised up to 6766 and 8 confirmed deaths, with the highest incidence in the city of Beira. The government and partners made integrated efforts to control the disease, establishing treatment centers and units and improving sanitation and hygiene and surveillance. Furthermore, 800,000 people were immunized, and the results seemed satisfactory considering the response. Although cyclones are rare, Mozambique has a very limited capacity to handle their impact, and this urges the country to keep a contingency fund for future disasters.
Part of the book: Evaluation of Health Services