This chapter presents the technology of spasticity treatment—from diagnosis and treatment to quality control of treatment and rehabilitation. The diagnosis is based on methods of manual testing and differential diagnosis of spastic muscles, methods of quantitative assessment of spasticity on the basis of the Tardieu scale. The methodical development of the Tardieu scale with variants of its full and reduced use is presented. The basic patterns of spasticity of the upper and lower limbs are given. Schemes of management of patients with spasticity with indication of control points for application of methods of an assessment that shows efficiency of treatment and rehabilitation are presented. The methodology of spasticity treatment using botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), including ultrasonic navigation, orientation of intramuscular motor endpoint of muscles (IME), is described. IME location diagrams and ultrasound picture of muscles are presented. Scales are proposed to assess the effect of spasticity on the functions of the upper and lower limbs. In conclusion, a variant of complex treatment of spasticity and original patient models are proposed, the use of which makes it possible to calculate the cost of BoNT.
Part of the book: Neurostimulation and Neuromodulation in Contemporary Therapeutic Practice