Crop yield is mainly influenced by climatic factors, agronomic factors, pests and nutrient availability in the soil. Stress is any adverse environmental condition that hampers proper growth of plant. Abiotic stress creates adverse effect on multiple procedures of morphology, biochemistry and physiology that are directly connected with growth and yield of plant. Abiotic stress are quantitative trait hence genes linked to these traits can be identified and used to select desirable alleles responsible for tolerance in plant. Plants can initiate a number of molecular, cellular and physiological modifications to react to and adapt to abiotic stress. Crop productivity is significantly affected by drought, salinity and cold. Abiotic stress reduce water availability to plant roots by increasing water soluble salts in soil and plants suffer from increased osmotic pressure outside the root. Physiological changes include lowering of leaf osmotic potential, water potential and relative water content, creation of nutritional imbalance, enhancing relative stress injury or one or more combination of these factors. Morphological and biochemical changes include changes in root and shoot length, number of leaves, secondary metabolite (glycine betaine, proline, MDA, abscisic acid) accumulation in plant, source and sink ratio. Proposed chapter will concentrate on enhancing plant response to abiotic stress and contemporary breeding application to increasing stress tolerance.
Part of the book: Sustainable Crop Production