Inflammatory diseases (bronchitis, irritable bowel diseases, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, conjunctivitis, hepatitis, rhinitis, etc.) are increasingly becoming the cause of health concern across the world. For both developed and developing countries, the public health cost attached to the management of these complications is increasing each year. Control of diet is one of the critical strategies to improve the therapeutic potentials of clinically proven drugs. Among the dietary factors, bioactive lipids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, elicit essential effects of modulating signaling pathways that could provide a beneficial effect in individuals suffering from various inflammatory complications. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids, both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids exhibit differential effects, and their dietary ratio plays a significant role in the overall impact in an individual. This is most evident with the fact that the decrease in the n-3 intake in recent times has significantly contributed to the severity of chronic inflammation. The mechanism by which these fatty acids and bioactive unsaponifiable embedded in the dietary oils modulate the critical genes, thereby alter the pathology of inflammatory complications is under study for many decades. In this chapter, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their modulatory effects on some of the significant inflammatory complications are discussed.
Part of the book: Apolipoproteins, Triglycerides and Cholesterol