Аbstract Studies on vestibular system have brought new experimental studies, clinical examinations, and the development of effective treatment for a number of diseases of this system. In particular, vestibular paroxysmal positional disorders of peripheral and central origin have been studied. The main criteria for differential diagnosis of these disorders have been determined. Vestibular dysfunction in canalolithiasis and cupololithiasis has been investigated clinically and histologically. Effective therapeutic and prophylactic positional maneuvers of three types have been introduced into clinical practice. They were developed taking into account the anatomical and physiological features of the vestibular system. Currently only 20% of vestibular reactions, in particular, using electronystagmography test (ENG), are estimated in the horizontal plane. Videonystagmography (VNG) gives the possibility of video recording of nystagmus in the directions of semicircular channels (vertical, diagonal, horizontal). The vestibular evoked myogenic potential test (VEMP) is being widely used in clinical practice. Magnetic coils and scanning laser ophthalmoscopes are gaining increasing significance in examining patients. A brief information on vestibular disorders after the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident is also given.
Part of the book: Somatosensory and Motor Research