The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan City, China, in 2019. After that, the outbreak has grown into a global pandemic and definite treatment for the disease, termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently unavailable. The slow translational progress in the field of research suggests that a large number of studies are urgently required for targeted therapy. In this context, this hypothesis explores the role of bacteriophages on SARS-CoV-2, especially concerning phage therapy (PT). Several studies have confirmed that in addition to their antibacterial abilities, phages also show antiviral properties. It has also been shown that PT is effective for building immunity against viral pathogens by reducing the activation of NF kappa B; additionally, phages produce the antiviral protein phagicin. Phages can also induce antiviral immunity by upregulating expression of defensin 2. Phages may protect eukaryotic cells by competing with viral adsorption and viral penetration of cells, virus mediated cell apoptosis as well as replication. Moreover, by inhibiting activation of NF-κB and ROS production, phages can down regulate excessive inflammatory reactions relevant in clinical course of COVID-19. In this chapter, we hypothesize that the PT may play a therapeutic role in the treatment of COVID-19.
Part of the book: Bacteriophages in Therapeutics