Metagenomic approaches are a growing branch of science and have many applications in different fields. Metagenomics seems to be the ideal culture-independent technique for unraveling the biodiversity of soils and to study how this biodiversity is affected with continuously changing conditions. In addition, its application in clinical and diagnostic approaches was reported. The emergence of several next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategies enriched the metagenomics. The combination between NGS and metagenomic approaches helped the investigators resolve several issues regarding the microbial diversity and the functions and relationships among different microbial flora. A number of NGS approaches were developed including Roche/454 pyrosequencing, Illumina/Solexa sequencing, and Applied Biosystems/SOLiD sequencing. In this chapter, different NGS platforms are discussed in terms of principle, advantages, and limitations. In addition, third-generation sequencing technologies are also addressed.
Part of the book: Metagenomics
Screening for microbial secondary metabolites (SMs) has attracted the attention of the scientific community since 1940s. In fact, since the discovery of penicillin, intensive researches have been conducted worldwide in order to detect and identify novel microbial secondary metabolites. As a result, the discovery of novel SMs has been decreased significantly by using traditional experiments. Therefore, searching for new techniques to discover novel SMs was one of the most priority objectives. However, the development and advances of omics-based techniques such as metabolomics and genomics have revealed the potential of discovering novel SMs which were coded in the microorganisms’ DNA but not expressed in the lab media or might be produced in undetectable amount by detecting the biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) that are associated with the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Nowadays, the development and integration of gene editing tools such as CRISPR-Cas9 in metabolomics provide a successful platform for the identification and detection of known and novel SMs and also to increase the production of SMs.
Part of the book: Extremophilic Microbes and Metabolites
Since 1940s, microbial secondary metabolites (SMs) have attracted the attention of the scientific community. As a result, intensive researches have been conducted in order to discover and identify novel microbial secondary metabolites. Since, the discovery of novel secondary metabolites has been decreasing significantly due to many factors such as 1) unculturable microbes 2) traditional detection techniques 3) not all SMs expressed in the lab. As a result, searching for new techniques which can overcome the previous challenges was one of the most priority objectives. Therefore, the development of omics-based techniques such as genomics and metabolomic have revealed the potential of discovering novel SMs which were coded in the microorganisms’ DNA but not expressed in the lab or might be produced in undetectable amount by detecting the biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs) that are associated with the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Nowadays, the integration of metabolomics and gene editing techniques such as CRISPR-Cas9 provide a successful platform for the detection and identification of known and unknown secondary metabolites also to increase secondary metabolites production.
Part of the book: Secondary Metabolites