Sirtuins (silent information regulators, sirts) via modification of histones, as well as transcription factors and co-regulators, control expression of other genes, particularly those involved in the organism response to stress. Detection of sirtuin expression in adipocytes initiated interest in their role in adipose tissue development and metabolism. This chapter presents how sirtuins control the critical steps of preadipocytes’ differentiation and proliferation, as well as the process of adipose tissue browning. Moreover, it shows in vitro and in vivo data proving that sirtuins are involved in the regulation of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and secretory activity of adipose tissue. Due to all these reasons, sirtuins may constitute potential targets in the treatment of obesity and related complications.
Part of the book: Adipose Tissue
Endocrine disorders including hypothyroidism and hypercortisolism are considered as causes of secondary obesity. However, several hormonal abnormalities can also be found in individuals with primary (simple) obesity. Part of them results from the adipose tissue dysfunction that, via secreted adipokines, modulates the function of endocrine organs and can be reversed with weight loss. However, part of them correspond to the real endocrine disorder and require appropriate treatment. Therefore in the management of obese patients, it is essential to distinguish between obesity-related abnormal results of hormonal tests and underlying endocrine disorder. This chapter presents pathophysiological concepts of obesity-related changes in the endocrine system and briefly reviews diagnostic algorithms helpful in distinguishing them from the co-existing endocrine disorders.
Part of the book: Obesity and Health