The tumors associated with bone are mostly of mesenchymal origin and contribute to approximately 1% of all the known tumors. These could be primary/benign tumors (that originate in the bone), secondary tumors (that originate in some other tissue/organ and metastasize to the bone), or malignant primary bone tumors (that originate in bone and metastasize to distant tissue). These tumors are majorly due to defects in the regulation of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes and/or misregulation of signal transduction pathways. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used for the treatment have several side effects. During the recent years, therapeutic strategies involving hormone deprivation (estrogen, androgen), hormone replacements (estrogen analogs), hormone receptor modulators (SERMs), growth factors and cytokines, small-molecule inhibitors, and gene therapy have emerged as a promising alternative to chemo- and radiotherapy. In the present chapter, we have provided an extensive account of tumors associated with the bone and various therapeutic options related to hormone deprivation, hormone replacements, hormone receptor modulators, and hormone inhibition.
Part of the book: Hormone Therapy and Replacement in Cancer and Aging-related Diseases
Trauma, congenital abnormalities and pathologies such as cancer can cause significant defects in craniofacial bone. Regeneration of the bone in the craniofacial area presents a unique set of challenges due to its complexity and association with various other tissues. Bone grafts and bone cement are the traditional treatment options but pose their own issues with regards to integration and morbidity. This has driven the search for materials which mimic the natural bone and can act as scaffolds to guide bone growth. Novel technology and computer aided manufacturing have allowed us to control material parameters such as mechanical strength and pore geometry. In this chapter, we elaborate the current status of materials and techniques used in fabrication of scaffolds for craniomaxillofacial bone tissue engineering and discuss the future prospects for advancements.
Part of the book: Biomechanics and Functional Tissue Engineering