The wind-driven coastal upwelling east of Hainan Island (UEH) in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS) is sensitive to the multi-scale variability of atmospheric forcing. This chapter focuses on two ends of time scales of atmospheric forcing: very short-time or sudden impact, i.e., typhoon passages; and long-term variability associated with El Niño events. The response of the sea surface temperature (SST) associated with the UEH to typhoon passages was investigated based on concurrent satellite SST and wind products. The long-term variability and response of the UEH to super El Niño events were analyzed based on recent 30 years of satellite data. The results show that the UEH has significant responses to atmospheric forcing. Meanwhile, the ocean circulation also plays an important role in modulation of the coastal upwelling.
Part of the book: Estuaries and Coastal Zones