Water is very essential for all living beings. It covers nearly 70% of earth’s surface. Even though the major portion of earth is covered by water, there is severe shortage of drinking water in most of the countries across the world. Safe drinking water is vital for all forms of life though it does not provide any calories. Desalination of sea water appears as a solution for this problem. Advanced desalination technologies that are applied to seawater and brackish water prove to be effective alternatives in a variety of situations. This study mainly focuses on upcoming trends in modern desalination technologies and emphasizing the options offered by them. Desalination is a technique where the excess salts are removed from sea water or brackish water converting it into safe potable or usable water. Desalination methods are categorized into thermal processes and membrane processes. In this chapter we discuss about different thermal processes like multistage flash distillation, multiple effect distillation, vapour compression evaporation, cogeneration and solar water desalination. We also discuss about various categories of membrane processes like reverse osmosis, electro dialysis and membrane distillation methods. This chapter also concentrates on advantages and disadvantages and economical parameters involved in each of these methods.
Part of the book: Desalination and Water Treatment
Nephrotic syndrome is a general type of kidney disease seen in children. In the past, Roelans is credited with the first clinical description of nephrotic syndrome in the late fifteenth century. Nephrotic syndrome is appropriate to excessive hypoalbuminemia, edema, and proteinuria may be hyperlipidemia also present in some cases. Periorbital swelling with or without edema of the body is observed in first starting little period of life, frequently show in children with this condition. Nephrotic syndrome starts develops due functional and structural changes in the GFB, consequential difficulty to control protein in the urine. Nephrotic syndrome possibly causes due to some of glomerular diseases and systemic diseases, but significantly the mostly in childhood is unknown nephrotic syndrome. The first significant improvement with introduction of sulfonamides and then penicillin was seen in 1939. The beginning of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisone greater decrease in mortality (to 9%), in the 1950s it was noted to happen in association with spectacular declaration of proteinuria. Etiology of nephrotic syndrome is also age reliant. Most cases reported in the first 3 months of life are referred to as congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) and are due to genetic diseases.
Part of the book: Renal Diseases