Hybrid cement (H-Cement/HC) takes advantages of the material properties of cement and alkali-activated cement with the resulting benefit on utility properties so that hybrid cement can replace in large quantities ordinary Portland cement (PC) as follows: H-Cement is used by the same way as traditional cements; H-Cement is suitable for use in ready-mixed concrete up to C30/37 strength class; H-Cement has shrinkage-reducing and alkali-aggregate-mitigating property; H-Cement shows the same sulphate resistance with sulphate-resistant Portland cement with C3A = 0; H-Cement is a suitable binder for use in concrete containing the swelling steel slag aggregate as a full replacement of natural aggregate. This low-energy, low-cost and environmentally friendly hybrid cement belongs to the group of advanced cements, in which parameters predetermine it to overcome PC serviceability in certain applications. The objective of this chapter is to characterize fundamental properties and some durability aspects of H-Cement in concrete.
Part of the book: Compressive Strength of Concrete
This article deals with the determination of technically important properties, the recognition of microstructure and pore structure, and the mortar resistance of a new cement kind NONRIVAL CEM I 52.5 N containing 7.94% wt. of C3A to 5% sodium sulfate solution. Both reference types of cement were industrially manufactured: 1) ordinary Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R and 2) Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R – SR 0, declared as sulfate resistant because of C3A = 0%. The research was carried out at standardized mortars. The used sodium sulfate solution, which contained 33802.8 mg of aggressive SO42− per liter, exceeded approximately 5 to 10 times the concentration of the third degree of aggressiveness of the XA chemical environment according to STN EN 206 + A1. The reference medium was drinking water. The 5-year results of non-destructive and destructive physical-mechanical tests as well as the formed microstructure and pore structure in both liquid media were evaluated. The cause of the NONRIVAL CEM I 52.5 N sulfate resistance was explained, despite the manufacturer’s declared C3A content of up to 8% by weight. Sulfate resistance of NONRIVAL CEM I 52.5 N is found comparable to that of sulfate resistant CEM I 42.5 R – SR 0.
Part of the book: Cement Industry