Water is an essential nutrient in animal nutrition, makes about 70 to 80% of lean body mass and plays important roles in poultry metabolism and thermal homeostasis. Water provided as drinking water constitutes the largest proportion of water available to poultry followed by metabolic water and that available in feed. The intake of water by birds varies depending on the age, environmental temperature, relative humidity, certain diet constituents, type of drinkers used and rate of growth. An increase in environmental temperature tends to cause an increase in water intake while decrease in environmental temperature causes decrease in water intake. Hence, in addition to its nutritional role, water is more important for thermoregulation in chickens especially under hot conditions.
Part of the book: Advances in Poultry Nutrition Research
Fluoride is an inorganic monatomic anion of fluorine and forms part of essential reagents used by the chemical industry. It occurs naturally in several minerals and in trace quantities in water. Fluoride has been used to prevent tooth decay and in the treatment of osteoporosis. Extensive research has consistently demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of fluorides in the prevention of dental caries following the practice of water fluoridation. Despite these benefits, fluorides pose danger as an endocrine disruptor thus, affecting bones, brain, thyroid gland, pineal gland and blood sugar levels. In Canada, water fluoridation remains a contentious issue although dental decay constitutes the most common chronic disease. However, several Canadians are receiving the benefits of water fluoridation and about 1% have access to naturally fluoridated water. In Nigeria, the prevalence of dental caries has been documented to be greatly reduced following fluoridation of public water supplies in areas where the condition was endemic. Fluoride is therefore the only medicine added to public water, and at the recommended level, fluoride is safe and effective in the reduction of dental decay and poses no risk for health problems. Hence, this article highlighted fluoride content in drinking water and the health implications of consuming fluoride-rich water with a focus on the situation in Canada and Nigeria.
Part of the book: Environmental Health