Combined application of bioreactors and membrane separations are considered as membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Examples for the application of MBRs are given in this chapter both for large scale (wastewater treatments) and in other areas in smaller scale. Wastewater treatments are the majority of the large-scale applications, where biological degradation is coupled with membrane filtration (microfiltration and ultrafiltration). Other types of MBRs include integration of biotransformations and bioconversions by microorganisms and enzymes with membrane separation processes, not only with filtration but also with pervaporation, electrodialysis, and gas separation. These MBRs provide significant advantages compared to the conventional batch bioprocesses. In this chapter, several examples are presented for both applications.
Part of the book: Biotechnology and Bioengineering