Mitochondria are the major energy producers within a cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate by oxidative phosphorylation. Normal mitochondrial metabolism inevitably generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been considered to solely cause cellular damage. Increase of oxidative stress has been linked to various pathologies. Thus, mitochondrial ROS (mROS) were basically proposed as byproducts of oxidative metabolism, which undergo normalized by antioxidant enzymes. However, the mROS have extensively been esteemed to function as signalling molecules to regulate a wide variety of physiology. These phenomena are indeed dependent on mitochondrial redox status, which is dynamically altered under different physiological and pathological conditions. The oxidative stress is incurred by which the redox status is inclined to exceeded oxidation or reduction. Here, we attempt to integrate the recent advances in our understanding of the physiological functions of mROS.
Part of the book: Free Radical Medicine and Biology