Ferns, amphibians, and fish are groups of nontarget organisms affected by many types of pesticides that end up in the environment. This chapter aims to approach the following themes: the influence of different pesticides on the spore germination process and on the differentiation of their gametophyte; aspects regarding the impact of some pesticides on breathing in fish (physiology and histopathology at the branchial level), as well as a series of effects at the hematological and biochemical levels; and changes of some hematological, biochemical, and structural parameters in amphibians. Species that are not directly targeted by the action of the pesticide in the environment, ferns can be used in their gametophyte stage, young or mature sporophyte in different biotests to evaluate the risk associated with these substances. The biochemical, hemathological, and histopathological changes recorded in both fish and amphibians can be considered biomarkers of pesticide pollution.
Part of the book: Pesticides