Nowadays, we are talking more and more about insecurity in various sectors as well as the computer techniques to be implemented to counter this trend: access control to computers, e-commerce, banking, etc. There are two traditional ways of identifying an individual. The first method is a knowledge-based method. It is based on the knowledge of an individual’s information such as the PIN code to allow him/her to activate a mobile phone. The second method is based on the possession of token. It can be a piece of identification, a key, a badge, etc. These two methods of identification can be used in a complementary way to obtain increased security like in bank cards. However, they each have their weaknesses. In the first case, the password can be forgotten or guessed by a third party. In the second case, the badge (or ID or key) may be lost or stolen. Biometric features are an alternative solution to the two previous identification modes. The advantage of using the biometric features is that they are all universal, measurable, unique, and permanent. The interest of applications using biometrics can be summed up in two classes: to facilitate the way of life and to avoid fraud.
Part of the book: Visual Impairment and Blindness