The widespread use of imaging has led to an unprecedented increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. Incidence rate has increased worldwide and most notable in older population (more than 75 years). There has been an evident revolution in the management of patients with small renal masses. Treatment strategies include active surveillance, partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy and focal ablative therapies. Nephron sparing surgery for small renal tumours offers comparable cancer-specific survival and better overall survival when compared to radical nephrectomy. Nevertheless, complications related to extirpative surgery must be taken into consideration. Thermal ablative therapies were developed in an attempt to provide a reproducible treatment option with low risk of complications. Energy based renal ablation therapy offers treatment flexibility, technically less challenging procedure with acceptable oncological outcomes.
Part of the book: Evolving Trends in Kidney Cancer