Atomic spectroscopy includes a number of analytical techniques used to determine the elemental composition of a sample (it can be gas, liquid, or solid) by observing its electromagnetic spectrum or its mass spectrum. Element concentrations of a millionth (ppm) or one billionth part (ppb) of the sample can be detected. There are different variations of atomic spectroscopy, emission, absorption, fluorescence, and mass spectroscopy. Determination of an appropriate technique requires a basic understanding of each technique since each has its individual strengths and limitations. This chapter is designed to provide a basic overview to the atomic spectroscopy techniques and how can you select the one that best suits our analytical problems.
Part of the book: Modern Spectroscopic Techniques and Applications
In recent times, membrane technology has proven to be a more favorable option in wastewater treatment processes. Membrane technologies are more advantageous than conventional technologies such as efficiency, space requirements, energy, quality of permeate, and technical skills requirements. The forward osmosis (FO) membrane process has been widely applied as one of the promising technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis uses the osmotic pressure difference induced by the solute concentration difference between the feed and draw solutions. The proces requires a semi-permeable membrane which has comparable rejection range in size of pollutants (1 nm and below). This chapter reviews the application of FO membrane process in wastewater treatment. It considers the advantages and the disadvantages of this process.
Part of the book: Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes