Critical infrastructures operations significantly affect the triple bottom lines of sustainability. Considering the dynamic nature of infrastructure and its surrounding environment, the interaction between them can dramatically change over time. This results in a deviation from the predictions used in the design and construction of the infrastructure. Therefore, the negative impacts of critical infrastructures on the environment, society, and economy can exacerbate throughout their service life. It is crucial to maintain these impacts within the desired limits. The measures that attempt to perpetuate a facility’s adverse effects on the triple bottom lines of sustainability can be called sustainability maintenance. Regular maintenance operations of infrastructure create an opportunity to integrate sustainability maintenance into preventive, corrective, and periodic maintenances. This chapter discusses four categories of sustainability maintenance of critical infrastructures: (1) minimizing adverse impacts of the infrastructure on people through maintenance, (2) keeping the maintenance operations sustainable, (3) sustainable material allocation throughout the maintenance process, and (4) environmental protection and restoration in maintenance operations. In each category, some of the best practices and methods are discussed.
Part of the book: Infrastructure Management and Construction
Shrink of nonrenewable natural resources and the pollution generated by many manufacturing industries have initiated a global determination for pushing the industry toward more sustainable products. Asphalt as the principal element of almost any street and highway pavement is integral in transportation development, which, in turn, is pivotal for sustainable development. On the other hand, the material consumption and pollution generated in the asphalt industry pose significant threats to the environment and, therefore, to sustainability. This chapter reflects some of the sustainability concerns of the asphalt industry and discusses some of the possible solutions to mitigate them. The sustainability considerations are categorized into four phases of asphalt life cycle namely: (1) extraction of materials, (2) processing of raw materials, (3) transportation of asphalt raw materials and products, and (4) reusing and recycling at the end of a pavement’s life. In each phase, best practices to improve and maintain the sustainability of asphalt pavements are discussed. This chapter also discusses sustainable approaches and technologies in the asphalt industry such as warm mixes, permeable asphalt pavements as well as the potentials for improving the mechanical properties of asphalt pavements particularly in terms of resisting heavy load traffic, clogging, and freeze-thaw.
Part of the book: Asphalt and Asphalt Mixtures