Magneto-sensitive smart materials, also named as magnetorheological (MR) materials, are a class of smart composites prepared by dispersing nanometer- or micrometer-sized ferromagnetic fillers into the different carrier matrix. As the rheological properties can be controlled by an external magnetic field rapidly, reversibly, and continuously, magneto-sensitive smart materials have great application potential in construction, automotive industry, artificial intelligence, etc. In this chapter, a brief history and classification of magneto-sensitive smart materials are firstly summarized. Next, we discuss the state-of-the-art of the magnetorheological mechanism through experimental and theoretical studies, respectively. Finally, the prospect for this material in the future is presented.
Part of the book: Nanofluid Flow in Porous Media
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a type of soft magneto-active rubber-like material, whose physical or mechanical properties can be altered upon the application of a magnetic field. In general, MREs can be prepared by mixing micron-sized magnetic particles into nonmagnetic rubber-like matrices. In this chapter, the materials, the preparing methods, the analytical models, and the applications of MREs are reviewed. First, different kinds of magnetic particles and rubber-like matrices used to prepare MREs, as well as the preparing methods, will be introduced. Second, some examples of the microstructures, as well as the microstructure-based analytical models, of MREs will be shown. Moreover, the magnetic field-induced changes of the macroscopic physical or mechanical properties of MREs will be experimentally given. Third, the applications of MREs in engineering fields will be introduced and the promising applications of MREs will be forecasted. This chapter aims to bring the reader a first-meeting introduction for quickly knowing about MREs, instead of a very deep understanding of MREs.
Part of the book: Smart and Functional Soft Materials