Within the practice of construction economics, cost-benefit audits are carried out by proprietary audits with the intention of reporting the adequacy of any action and decision taken, meeting planned objective of a project or by efficiency audit which requires a more concise and restrictive investigation (like energy optimization) for its reporting. The efficiency audit system is most appropriate for energy utilization and performance investigation since it seeks to compare actual level of energy uses as against planned targets. This economic audit system of building energy requires that information about the energy designs are collected by means of management information system (MIS), reestablishing the data collected, comparing potential energy financial parameters with actuals, establishing the possible causes of variance. This is often justified or validated by such techniques as budgeted energy cost variance analysis, present value depreciation method, profit variance analysis, and cash flow and financial criteria analysis.
Part of the book: Zero and Net Zero Energy
The purpose of this chapter is to present the reader with the physical processes of how flexible road pavements progressively fail and impair the quality of finished roads arising from non-adherence to roads construction quality outlines and requirements. This was achieved by investigating eight (8) roads from a sample of nineteen (19) roads based on purposive sampling. Using instruments of steel tapes, paints for failed sections, rolling rule and pictures, measurement of length, width and depth of various failed sections were taken for five (5) daily measurements at three (3) monthly visit intervals for Four Hundred and Thirty Five (435) days to show the rate of deterioration. Data obtained were analyzed for reliability of pavements using Weibull distribution statistics on ReliasoftWeibull++to extrapolate pavement reliability from bathtub function. Findings showed that roads failed progressively within six (6) months after finished construction and deteriorated fast with increased failures on length, depth and width of pavements. The practical implications of this is that the process of construction did not conform with required/stipulated quality control metrics of flexible road construction especially in the areas of geomaterials compaction, temperature and density of materials laid. It was recommended that organization adhere to quality control guidelines and requirements to forestall quality impairment.
Part of the book: Quality Control