The thermophysical and some other properties of solids are of great importance for the use in the chemical, military, and even aerospace industries and for the design of efficient cryogenic equipment. Considering the heat loads, cooling, thermal fluctuations, or stresses or cryogenic fluids in boilers, the thermophysical properties should be considered. There is a considerable literature on the mechanical and structural properties of solids at cryogenic temperatures, but unfortunately there is not enough literature available for thermophysical properties. This chapter is recommended to close this gap. This chapter basically states: thermophysical properties of metals at cryogenic temperatures, specific heats, and thermal conductivity.
Part of the book: Heat and Mass Transfer
Mathematical modeling of the heat pump as a result of continuity, momentum, and energy equations is obtained. To solve these equations numerically, the problem is divided by a finite number of control volumes. Then the differential equations in these control volumes integrated and converted into algebraic equations. The importance of computational fluid dynamics in Industry 4.0 applications is to make current applications more efficient in heat pump applications. In this study, the book section is composed of the application of computational fluid dynamics by the control volume method using Ansys fluent program, which will benefit readers from industry 4.0 perspective, especially in energy efficiency issues according to the volume method of controlling correct heat pump designs.
Part of the book: Modeling and Simulation in Engineering