The cancer of the vulva is a rare disease with a positive association to poor developing countries. However, the incidence of vulvar cancer in situ nearly doubled in the last two decades and remained relatively stable. The main reason for this increased incidence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women younger than 45 years is due to changes in sexual behavior, first intercourse at early age, multiple sexual partners, and sexually transmitted diseases that were increasing progressively. Furthermore, it is strongly associated with smoking and the increased incidence of HPV infection. The occurrence of early symptoms of VIN-like pruritus vulvae, pain, and lichen sclerosus led to early diagnosis to perform the adequate treatment. VIN tends to appear multifocal, while most invasive cancers are unilateral located and appeared with well-circumscribed lesions.
Part of the book: Depigmentation
Thromboembolic disease during pregnancy is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality involving venous or arterial thrombosis and possible clinical manifestations like clinical symptoms of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and hyperhomocysteinemia. For diminishing the prevalence of thromboembolic disease, the early identification of pregnant women with various risk factors for thrombosis without clinical symptoms is of great importance. However, the optimal management for asymptomatic pregnant women who have inherited thrombophilia is uncertain and recognized only due to pregnancy complications such as recurrent pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. The clinical approach to thromboembolism is the same in pregnant women with or without thrombophilia. Based on family history, clinical symptoms should begin with simple reliable inexpensive laboratory tests like prothrombin time and activated thromboplastin time to test the status. Early diagnosis and appropriate use of thromboprophylaxis lead to increasing better maternal and perinatal outcomes. Conclusively, it is important to recognize these patients in order to prevent all pregnancy complications.
Part of the book: Embolic Disease
The miscarriages’ investigation should include a familiar history, gynecological examination and a full laboratory testing including hormonal control, as well as karyotype, maternal immune control and thrombophilia testing. If the physician suspects the cause of abortions is chromosomal due to heredity, a special blood test (karyotype) for the pair is recommended. Chromosomal abnormalities are the most common reason for first trimester abortions, and are impossible to be prevented. Based on the above data, abortion and the subsequent possible infertility should not be considered as a personal failure for the woman and the treating physician. Nowadays, medical advancement provides many options combined with psychological support can actually reduce the miscarriages’ risk.
Part of the book: Induced Abortion and Spontaneous Early Pregnancy Loss