Fibrous materials are attractive for biomedical applications owing to their structural superiorities, which include large surface-area-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and pore interconnectivity in a controlled manner. Among the various methods of fiber fabrication, electrospinning has emerged as an attractive nanotechnology to produce ultrafine fibrous materials for myriad applications, including tissue scaffolding. In this technique, processing parameters, such as the solution properties, tip-to-collector distance, applied voltage, etc., can be tailored to obtain the fibers of the desired morphology and physicochemical properties. Ideal scaffolds should meet the basic requirements, such as three-dimensional (3D) architecture, proper mechanical properties and biodegradability, and the sufficient surface characteristics for cell adhesion and proliferation. However, most of the electrospun nanofiber-based scaffolds have densely packed two-dimensional (2D) array which hinders the cell infiltration and growth throughout the scaffolds, thereby limiting their applicability in tissue regeneration. To overcome this problem, several attempts have been made to develop a biomimetic three-dimensional, nanofibrous scaffold. This chapter deals with noble techniques including gas foaming (GF), charge repulsion-assisted fabrication, post-processing, liquid-assisted collection, collector modification, and porogen-assisted methods for the fabrication of 3D nanofibrous scaffold for biomedical applications.
Part of the book: Generation, Development and Modifications of Natural Fibers