Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is one of the most critical genomic alterations in lower grade and secondary glioblastoma patient. More than 90% of IDH mutation is located at codon R132 of IDH1 gene. IDH mutation produces oncometabolite “2-hydroxyglutarate” and induces epigenetic alteration, such as DNA global methylation and histone methylation. As a result, IDH mutation promotes early gliomagenesis. Since IDH mutation is the earliest genomic event and almost always retained during tumor progression, IDH mutation is expected as novel therapeutic target. Herein, we review the clinical characteristics of IDH-mutant gliomas, biological role of IDH mutation for gliomagenesis, and current and future therapeutic approach for IDH mutant tumors.
Part of the book: Brain and Spinal Tumors