Melanoma is one of the fastest growing types of cancer worldwide in terms of incidence. To date, reports show over 92,000 new cases in the United States in 2018. Previously, we introduced protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) as an oncogene in melanoma. PKC-ι promotes survival and cancer progression along with PKC-zeta(ζ). In addition, we reported that PKC-ι induced metastasis of melanoma cells by increasing Vimentin dynamics. Our previous results showed that PKC-ι inhibition downregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), while inducing apoptosis. In this chapter, we summarized these findings which were based on the in-vitro applications of five specific atypical PKC (aPKC) inhibitors. In addition, the underlying mechanisms of the transcriptional regulation of PRKCI gene expression in melanoma is also discussed. Results demonstrated that c-Jun promotes PRKCI expression along with Interleukin (IL)-6/8. Furthermore, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) acts as a downregulator of PRKCI expression upon stimulation of IL-17E and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in melanoma cells. Overall, the chapter summarizes the importance of PKC-ι/ζ in the progression of melanoma and discusses the cellular signaling pathways that are altered upon inhibitor applications. Finally, we established that aPKCs are effective novel biomarkers for use in the design of novel targeted therapeutics for melanoma.
Part of the book: Cutaneous Melanoma