Ménière’s disease (MD) is an inner-ear disease mostly characterized by frequent spontaneous vertigo and fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss. The main purpose of treatment for MD is to reduce or control the vertigo while maximizing the preservation of hearing. Among the various treatments, one that is effective for refractory MD, intratympanic gentamicin (ITG), relies on its ototoxic property to effectively control the vertigo symptoms of most patients. ITG treatment has relatively few side effects compared with surgically destructive treatments, but it also carries a nonnegligible risk of sensorineural hearing loss. So far, there is no consensus on the dosage and treatment duration of ITG. Most researchers recommend that intratympanic injection of gentamicin is more suitable for patients with unilateral onset and impaired hearing function, who are younger than 65 years old, as well as with frequent and severe vertigo attacks, and ineffective prior conservative treatment. Before an ITG treatment, patients should be adequately informed about the risk of hearing loss, and in order to reduce the risk of deafness, low drug dose and long intervals between injections are recommended. In short, to administer an ITG injection, multiple factors should be comprehensively considered including patient selection, pharmacological mechanism, drug dose, the interval of administration, complications, indications, and contraindications.
Part of the book: Meniere's Disease