The intermittent nature of renewable power sources (RES) can significantly change the voltage profile of smart grids and adversely impact the conventional voltage control devices such as tap-changing transformers and capacitor banks. Furthermore, the growing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can add high stress on voltage control devices due to the PEV stochastic and concentrated power profiles. Such power profiles may lead to high maintenance costs and reduced lifetimes for voltage control devices and limit actions on accommodation of high penetration levels of RES and PEVs. This chapter explains the basic background of voltage regulation in smart grids. The typical approaches, which are employed by utilities for voltage regulation, are reviewed. Then, the impact of RES and PEVs on voltage regulation is analyzed. Lastly, remedies for voltage violations in smart grids, such as optimal reactive power control and coordination between voltage control devices, are discussed.
Part of the book: Research Trends and Challenges in Smart Grids