A fully relativistic formulation of quantum mechanics is derived by introducing a Lagrangian density of the fields between the excited and ground states and taking the action integral. The change in action, or photon, is a four-dimensional localization of fields that is defined symmetrically with respect to the field boundaries. Due to this photon model, we interpret the three mathematical formulations of atomic structure, matrix mechanics, wave mechanics, and path integrals, as different mathematical methods of describing the superposed physical components of an excited state: nucleus, electron, and photon. Recent experiments with slow and stopped light are shown to support this theoretical interpretation. The derivation of quantum theory with respect to fields requires new interpretations of the uncertainty principle, correspondence principle, complementarity, and force.
Part of the book: Metastable, Spintronics Materials and Mechanics of Deformable Bodies