Cheese is one of the most demanded dairy products worldwide. However, during the conversion of milk to cheese, about 10 liters of milk are employed and about 9 liters of whey are generated for each 1 kg of cheese produced. The whey has traditionally been used for animal feed and as starting material for obtaining whey proteins. Furthermore, whey has the significant values of BOD and COD, becoming the most important contaminant in the dairy industry. For this reason, further growth of cheese sector is being limited by the surplus of whey as a by-product of the production of the cheeses. One of the many possibilities offered by the whey is its use as a starting material to produce many biotech products with a higher added value. The kefiran is a degradable biopolymer and is formed by galactose and glucose units, in almost similar proportions, which have been found with numerous benefits for human health. It is produced by a consortium of acid-lactic bacteria and yeasts, which coexist within the kefir granules, which are able to grow and multiply using the lactose present in the whey. The objective of the present study is to establish a small-scale process that allows the obtaining of kefiran.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Biochemical Engineering
Organic acids constitute a group of organic compounds that find multiple applications in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. For this reason, the market for these products is continuously growing. Traditionally, most organic acids have been produced by chemical synthesis from oil derivatives. However, the irreversible depletion of oil has led us to pay attention to other primary sources as possible raw materials to produce organic acids. The microbial production of organic acids from lactose could be a valid, economical, and sustainable alternative to guarantee the sustained demand for organic acids. Considering that lactose is a by-product of the dairy industry, this review describes different procedures to obtain organic acids from lactose by using microbial bioprocesses.
Part of the book: Lactose and Lactose Derivatives
Response surface methodology is a tool for the design of experiments, widely used today to optimize industrial processes, including agro-industrial ones. Since its appearance in the last century’s fifties, hundreds of articles, chapters of books, and books attest to this. In this work, a general overview of this tool’s general practical aspects is made. This statistical tool’s usefulness and popularity, used in the optimization of agro-industrial processes and in making them more efficient and sustainable, is described through multiple examples.
Part of the book: Response Surface Methodology in Engineering Science